An attorney is a person who, being licensed in Law and duly registered in the professional college, provides legal services to its clients, through counseling or assistance in both judicial and extrajudicial proceedings. Within the field of law, we can find general lawyers, as well as specialists in specific branches of law. In this article we are going to review the types of lawyers most common to know them and to know to which we should go to them in case of necessity.
What are the most common typologies?
1. Labor Lawyers
Labor and Social Security Law are specialized. The most common issues involved are layoffs, wage claims, mobbing claims, disabilities, work accidents, holiday disputes, substantial changes in working conditions, etc. We can find labor lawyers whose clients are only workers, others who only carry companies and there are also workers and companies. In case of intervening in judicial proceedings, these are processed mainly in the Social Courts, and in second instance in the Superior Courts of Justice.
2. Criminal Lawyers
As their name indicates, they are dedicated to criminal law, that is, to cases in which there has been some kind of criminal action. Its function is to assist and defend the interests of its clients in declarations, during the instruction, and in the oral trial phase. In case of having as a client the injured party, its function will be to present the complaint or complaint and, if applicable, to appear as an indictment.
And, in case of taking the person allegedly infringing, his or her responsibility is to defend his client from the facts that he is accused of in order to be acquitted or, as the case may be, to reach an agreement with the prosecutor to limit The possible sentence. In the case of judicial proceedings, mainly, they intervene in the Court of Instruction, in the Criminal Courts and in the Provincial Court. And, in certain cases, they can intervene in the National Court.
3. Civil Lawyers
They are dedicated to matters in the field of Civil Law. Therefore, they defend the interests of individuals against other individuals, who may be natural or legal persons (companies, entities, etc.). Within this scope, there are very varied cases, from claiming economic debts, to tort or contractual civil liability, to divorce, inheritance or incapacitation. Also, within the Civil Law, today we can find lawyers who are specialists in specific matters such as Real Estate Law, in foreclosure cases, evictions, land clauses, etc.
4. Family Lawyers
Although Family Law is, rather, a sub-branch within Civil Law, we can consider it as a specialty since there are many lawyers specializing in Family Law. The most common matters in which they intervene are separations and divorces, and derived from them such as the regime of visits of the children, provisional measures, etc.
5. Mercantilist Lawyers
They are those that are dedicated to Mercantile Law, that is, that has to do with the business world. In recent years, they have been much in vogue due to the large increase in creditor contests. However, their role is not limited to the judicial sphere but also deal with merger processes between companies, drafting of commercial contracts, negotiation of agreements, intervention in shareholders’ meetings, etc. As for the jurisdiction, the Commercial Courts are competent and, according to the chaos, also the Courts of First Instance.
6. Administrative Lawyers
Its scope of action is that in which it intervenes, at least, a public administration. They intervene in the administrative proceeding by writing pleadings, appeals or replacement and, where appropriate, appeals before the contentious-administrative jurisdiction. They intervene in cases such as resorting to administrative sanctions, urban planning records or claims for damages due to poor performance of a public service.
7. Tax Lawyers
They are specialized in financial and tax law, that is, everything that has to do with taxes, fees, etc. Its intervention goes from the advice to the execution of negotiations with the Tax Agency and, as the case may be, in judicial proceedings in the contentious-administrative jurisdiction.
As can be seen, there are different types of lawyers according to the different specialties within the Law. Whenever the intervention of a lawyer is necessary, it is advisable to be a specialist in the matter to deal with the matter.
8. Criminal Lawyers
A criminal case is when an accused is charged with committing a crime, classified by the legal system as an act against a person or property. The job of criminal defense attorneys is to prove a defendant is innocent of charges brought against them, negotiate an agreement with the prosecutor as it is guaranteed in exchange for charges or reduction of penalties, and ensure their client receives a fair trial.
9. Juvenile Lawyers
Due to the laws and penalties associated with legal cases involving minors under the age of 18, criminal defense attorneys with experience in defending children between the ages of 10 and 17 are a good choice. Not only are the majority of minors unable to be judged as adults, they cannot also be tried by a jury nor given certain types of punishment. For this reason, a case involving a minor is the most advocated by criminal defense lawyers experience with the field of juvenile legislation.
10. Business Lawyers
The business lawyer is the partner of the company. He advises and defends his client at all stages of the company’s life, from drafting and negotiating commercial contracts, hiring and firing procedures, employee incentives, capital increases , Agreements with the company’s shareholders, or in strategic transactions such as fund raising, build-up or joint-venture operations, restructuring and, where appropriate, business.